Crude Accountability recognizes the climate crisis as one of the most urgent human rights concerns of our time. We partner with local civil society organizations to monitor energy companies’ activities and track their impact on climate change. Oil and gas development is a key contributor to the current climate crisis, and in our work, we draw on decades of experience collaborating with communities impacted by oil and gas development to address policies and industry practices that contribute to climate change. 

Our latest project consists of a series of interviews with and policy papers by environmental defenders from around the OSCE region. These regional experts provide overviews of different environmental issues from their communities and provide recommendations for the OSCE.

We call on countries and international financial institutions to uphold their commitments to environmentally sound practices and environmental protection. 

Our advocacy efforts to address the climate crisis include keeping international financiers, companies, and governments accountable for their international commitments. To learn more about specific climate commitments by country, click below.

Relying on the latest scientific data, we also address climate justice and environmental rights in our research into the environmental impacts of hydrocarbon development. 

As a founding member of the Climate Justice Working Group at the Civic Solidarity Platform (CSP), Crude Accountability leads advocacy for climate justice in the OSCE region.  

In our work, including with the CSP, we recognize the intersectionality of climate justice with gender issues, racism, impunity, violence, and human rights abuses. In this context, the Climate Justice Working Group gathers information about climate justice in the OSCE region, brings the issue to the forefront of OSCE concerns, and strengthens the capacity of the CSP’s ability to engage with topics including environmental degradation, human rights, and protection of environmental defenders from reprisals. The Working Group considers climate justice to be central to the mission of the OSCE’s human dimension. 

Climate commitments by country

Azerbaijan signed onto the Paris Agreement in 2016, committing to the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions to 35% of 1990 levels by 2030. As a signatory, Azerbaijan also committed to holding the “global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and [to pursue] efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.” During COP26 held in Glasgow in 2021, Rauf Hajiyev, Deputy Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources of Azerbaijan stated, “Despite the fact that we are an oil and gas country, Azerbaijan has set a goal to increase the share of renewable energy sources in electricity production to 30% by 2030. We are pleased to announce the country’s new goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2050 and create a zero-emission zone in the liberated territories [Nagorno-Karabakh].” 

According to the Azerbaijani Government, in tandem with EU4Climate, an affiliate of the EU and the UNDP, both Azerbaijan’s Nationally Determined Contribution 2021-2030 (NDC) and Low-Emission Development Strategy 2050 (LEDS) have been under development since 2021.

To learn more, check out our project that used satellite imagery to track gas flaring in Azerbaijan and analyzed Azerbaijan’s climate commitments.

Kazakhstan became a signatory to the Paris Agreement in 2016 and committed to a reduction of its GHG emissions to 15% of 1990 levels by 2030. Yet, according to a 2021 report, Kazakhstan’s efforts are too close to “business per usual,” which will lead the country’s emissions to only increase. In order to achieve their NDC, Kazakhstan announced at COP26 that it would increase its energy generation from renewable and clean sources, increase carbon sequestration efforts, and reduce coal usage by 30%. President Tokayev announced Kazakhstan’s commitment to carbon neutrality by 2060. Kazakhstan hopes to achieve this by improving the sustainability of land and water use, the energy efficiency of the economy, electrification, and large-scale use of environmentally friendly, including renewable, energy sources. Kazakhstan also seeks to capitalize on market mechanisms and private investments.

Russia became a signatory to the Paris Agreement in April, 2015. In November 2020, the Russian Federation updated its commitment to reduce GHG emission by 30%, compared to 1990 levels, by 2030. The original commitment was 25-30% by the same time frame. In October 2021, the Russian government approved its long-term climate strategy, which includes a net zero GHG emissions target for 2060 and targets an 80% reduction below 1990 levels by 2050. 

Other than this, Russia has not announced efforts to cut its development of fossil fuels. In fact, Climate Action Tracker states, “The Energy Strategy to 2035, adopted in 2021, focuses almost exclusively on promoting fossil fuel extraction, consumption, and export to the rest of the world”. Russia’s commitment to renewable energy is also inadequate, with a target of just 4.5% by 2024.

Turkmenistan became a signatory to the Paris Agreement in September, 2016. Unlike the previously mentioned states, Turkmenistan does not have a clear target indicated in its INDC. According to Turkmenistan’s submitted INDC, heavily reliant on the National Climate Change Strategy of Turkmenistan, the country plans to reduce its emissions by 2020-2030 with a base year of 2000. The documents indicate that the largest contributor to Turkmenistan’s emissions is energy consumption. As such, energy efficiency and conservation, sustainable use of natural gas and petroleum products, and increased use of alternative energy sources are the primary directives outlined for the reduction of GHG emissions. However, based on current policies, GHG emissions per capita are projected to increase by 15% by 2030 when compared to 2015 levels. Even with the high mark of Turkmenistan’s INDC, GHG emissions are expected to reach 120 million tons of CO2 equivalent per year by 2030. The only reduction indicated is GHG emissions per GDP, which have been in decline since the late 1990s, but this is a misleading indicator of climate progress and may demonstrate a stall in economic progress rather than a reduction in emissions. In addition, Turkmenistan is currently developing a National Adaptation Plan with funding provided by the Green Climate Fund. 

Mapping Methane Emissions