Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is in the second place—after Kazakhstan—as a consumer of credit resources of China. China is Turkmenistan’s largest export gas market.

Although the overall amount of Chinese credits to Turkmenistan is not known, according to specialists, it is more than 10 billion dollars. In 2014, Turkmenistan gas was 43.7 percent of the overall amount of imported gas, or 13.6 percent of used natural gas in China.

About 30 billion cubic meters of gas per year go through Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan-China gas pipeline. Another gas pipeline is also being built along the route “Turkmenistan – Uzbekistan – Tajikistan – Kyrgyzstan – China.” In accordance with the contract between CNPC and Turkmengaz, by the end of 2021, Turkmenistan will have to supply 65 billion cubic meters of gas to China per year.

In accordance with SREB, Turkmenistan is not only a key source of hydrocarbons for the long term, but also an important transport and transit hub through which China would like to enter the markets of the Persian Gulf. Turkmenistan is one of the most authoritarian countries in the world. The economy is tightly controlled by the state, corruption is flourishing,  and opposition is not tolerated.  In this environment, it is almost impossible to receive complete and credible information about the current hydrocarbon-related projects, the vast majority of which enriches the ruling clan, let alone to scrutinize the environmental and social aspects of such projects.    [/su_spoiler]